Plessy v. Ferguson upholds separation of races in public transportation
October, 1947
State Board of Education determines Moton High School inadequate
Prince Edward County builds tar-paper shacks as temporary buildings for Moton High School. Also appoints committee to find site for new building
U.S. Supreme Court in Sweatt case rules against segregated law school; NAACP decides to change strategies--suits to be for desegregation rather than equalization
April 12, 1951
Prince Edward County School Board starts process to buy land for new black high school
April 23, 1951
Barbara Johns gets students into assembly by trickery, advocates student strike
April 25, 1951
Oliver Hill and Spottswood Robinson meet with students in Farmville. Farmville Herald says strike was "student inspired" and "mass hookie"
April 26, 1951
Mass meeting (1,000) in Moton auditorium; NAACP asked to "intervene"
May 21, 1951
Prince Edward case filed
August, 1951
Moton School loan approved by state (jumped up priority list after strike and suit filed)
New Moton School placed in use
May 17, 1954
Brown decision announced: calls for "cool heads, calm study, and sound judgment" promises to consult leaders of both races. Senator Harry F. Byrd: decision "will bring implications and dangers of the greatest consequence"
June 26, 1954
Byrd announces he will use all legal means to continue segregated schools in Virginia. Governor Stanley pledges opposition
July 18, 1955
3 judge Federal Court rules Prince Edward County would not have to desegregate in September
October 13, 1955
Charlottesville black citizens apply for transfers to white schools
February 24, 1956
Byrd calls for "massive resistance"
March 12, 1956
101 members of Congress pass Southern Manifesto
May 3, 1956
Prince Edward Board of Supervisors says it will not appropriate money for integrated schools in the fall--county did not think a court could make it appropriate money against its will
May 6, 1956
Charlottesville parents sue school board; school board hires former governor John Battle for its defense on May 17
June 12, 1956
Arch-segregationist defeated in bid for Charlottesville City Council; winners call for defense of segregation "by any means short of abandonment of public education"
August 6, 1956
Judge John Paul (U.S. District Court) orders Charlottesville to integrate Venable and Lane High Schools
General Assembly enacts massive resistance package; creates State Pupil Placement Board (no local authority)
March 25, 1957
U.S. Supreme court refuses to hear Charlottesville appeal: dilemma: if school board refuses to integrate, members risk fines and jail; if they integrate, state will close schools
May 18, 1958
Charlottesville Education Foundation formed
June 12, 1958
Venable parents poll: 177 of 305 say they would accept some desegregation; 128 said close the school rather than integrate
August 22, 1958
Emergency Mothers at Venable announce willingness to hold school
September 10, 1958
Judge Paul orders 10 blacks to Venable, 2 to Lane
September 10, 1958
CEF and Parents Committee announce they are ready to open schools if public schools close
September 19, 1958
Lane High and Venable Elementary Schools closed. School Board says it is required to "relinquish all authority" to Governor
Charlottesville Education Foundation advocates permanent system of private segregated schools
September 24, 1958
Parents' Committee for Emergency Schooling in Charlottesville opens schools; 334 elementary students attend, CEF gets 186 students
October 8, 1958
Judge Paul says public school teacher cannot be used unless emergency schools open to blacks
February 4, 1959
Venable and Lane re-open
September 1, 1959
Pupil Placement Board denies transfer of 11 blacks ordered transferred by Judge Paul
September 5, 1959
Judge Paul orders 12 blacks transferred: 3 to Lane, 9 to Venable; says Pupil Placement Board, without "any validity whatsoever..."
September 8, 1959
Desegregated schools open without incident in Charlottesville
September 28, 1959
Charlottesville City Council appropriates money for tuition grant costs
February 23, 1961
Eugene Williams says "No other Southern City has accepted desegregation as well as Charlottesville has"
August 18, 1964
State NAACP files suit challenging tuition-grant program
March 9, 1965
Tuition grants held to be unlawful when schools were maintained predominately by the scholarship